Preserving the Richness of Arunachal Pradesh

28 Apr 2023

Preserving the natural environment’s flora and fauna through conservation is an essential element of environmental protection and management worldwide. The conservation term denotes the safeguarding and maintenance of wildlife, which is a significant component of the natural environment’s biodiversity. In today’s world, with the rapid increase in human population growth, resulting in environmental degradation and climate change, wildlife conservation has become a crucial issue to maintain and improve biodiversity.

Biodiversity in India

India boasts one of the world’s most diverse and abundant natural environments, teeming with a wide variety of flora and fauna. Sadly, human-induced activities such as hunting, pollution, habitat loss, and other factors have led to the extinction of numerous animal species over the years. Among the wildlife species that have disappeared from India are the Cheetah, Mountain Quail, Pink-Headed Duck, and Great Indian Bustard. To safeguard India’s wildlife, various measures have been implemented, including the establishment of protected areas like national parks and wildlife sanctuaries, habitat protection, anti-poaching efforts, and community participation. Wildlife conservation NGOs in India have played a pivotal role in protecting and preserving the country’s precious wildlife resources, making significant contributions to the cause.

The Northeast region of India, including Arunachal Pradesh, stands out as a globally recognized hotspot of bio diversity, boasting a wealth of unique and endangered species of flora and fauna. Encompassing eight states, this region serves as a habitat for endangered species like the Asiatic Elephant, Bengal Florican, Hoolock Gibbon, and the One-horned Rhino. The Northeast region is part of the Indo-Burma hotspot, which is among the 34 designated biodiversity hotspots worldwide. However, the region’s unique biodiversity is under threat from multiple sources, including habitat destruction, poaching, and climate change. The deforestation, pesticide use, and illegal wildlife trade pose significant threats to wildlife in the region. To address these concerns, there is an immediate need for awareness of and comprehension of conservation methods.

Wildlife Conservation and Tiger Protection of Arunachal Pradesh

Arunachal Pradesh is widely recognized for its abundant biodiversity, which encompasses rare and endangered species like the Clouded Leopard, Tibetan Macaque, and White-Winged Wood Duck, earning it the nickname “Land of the Rising Sun.” The state is home to several protected areas, including the Pakhui Wildlife Sanctuary, Mouling National Park, and Namdapha National Park, which play a crucial role in safeguarding the region’s wildlife. However, human activities have posed significant threats to the state’s wildlife, making wildlife conservation and tiger protection more urgent than ever before.

Arunachal Pradesh, known for its rich biodiversity, has become a crucial habitat for tigers, a flagship species of India and a vital predator in food chains, whose conservation is necessary to maintain the ecological balance and to act as an indicator of the ecosystem health. Given that tigers are among the world’s most endangered animals, preserving their habitat in Arunachal Pradesh is crucial, especially since the state represents one of the few remaining habitats where wild tigers still exist. Arunachal Pradesh currently has three tiger reserves, namely Namdapha, Kamlang, and Pakke, and with the announcement from the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA), the Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary will soon join the list. It is, therefore, imperative to conserve these reserves and protect the habitats of tigers to ensure the survival of the tiger population in the state and the region.

Kamlang TigerĀ Reserve, spanning across 783 sq km, is a significant tiger reserve in Arunachal Pradesh. It is home to endangered species like the White-Winged Wood Duck, Asiatic Black Bear, and Slow Loris, in addition to the Bengal Tiger. However, the reserve is grappling with issues like habitat fragmentation, poaching, and human-wildlife conflict. Conservation efforts are underway to address these challenges and safeguard the wildlife of the reserve.

Namdapha Tiger Reserve,sprawling over an area of 1985 sq km, is one of the largest tiger reserves in India. Along with Bengal Tigers, it also serves as a habitat for endangered species like the Hoolock Gibbon, Clouded Leopard, and Asiatic Black Bear. However, the reserve faces challenges such as habitat loss, poaching, and human-elephant conflict. The government and conservation NGOs are actively taking measures to tackle these challenges and conserve the wildlife of the reserve.

Pakke Tiger Reserve,located in the western part of Arunachal Pradesh, covers an area of 862 sq k. It serves as a habitat for endangered species like the Hoolock Gibbon, Clouded Leopard, and Asiatic Black Bear, along with the Bengal Tiger. However, the reserve faces challenges such as habitat loss, poaching, and human-wildlife conflict. The government and conservation NGOs are taking various steps to mitigate these challenges and protect the wildlife of the reserve.

Importance of Conserving the Biodiversity of Arunachal Pradesh

Arunachal Pradesh is currently grappling with a critical challenge of species extinction due to rampant habitat loss and poaching, resulting in the rapid decline of tigers, elephants, rhinoceroses, and other endemic and endangered animals. This loss has had severe repercussions on the environment, underscoring the utmost importance of conservation efforts. The state is endowed with unique and diverse biodiversity, which necessitates conservation for multiple reasons. The state’s forests, in particular, play a crucial role as water catchments, making their preservation vital for maintaining the water cycle and preventing soil erosion. Moreover, these forests hold immense ecological significance as they serve as habitats for numerous endangered species.

Conservation efforts aimed at protecting the wildlife and habitats of Arunachal Pradesh are not only crucial for maintaining ecological balance but also ensuring the survival of these endangered species. Additionally, the preservation of the state’s rich biodiversity presents opportunities for eco-tourism, which can contribute to the local economy’s development. By conserving Arunachal Pradesh’s biodiversity, we can achieve long-lasting ecological stability while promoting eco-tourism and creating sustainable livelihood opportunities for local communities.

In the state, there are various tiger reserves and wildlife sanctuaries such as Pakke, Namdapha, and Dibang that provide habitats not only for tigers but also for other fauna in the region. Therefore, it is imperative to protect wildlife, coexist with the communities that share the same habitats, and support conservation measures to preserve the ecological richness of Arunachal Pradesh. By addressing the challenges of species extinction through effective conservation measures, we can safeguard the state’s unique biodiversity and contribute to the overall well-being of the environment, economy, and local communities.

In conclusion, wildlife conservation is a fundamental aspect of global environmental protection and management, and Arunachal Pradesh, particularly Northeast India, is renowned for its diverse flora and fauna, making the preservation of its biodiversity imperative. The conservation of Arunachal Pradesh’s rich biodiversity not only contributes to maintaining ecological balance but also brings significant economic, social, and cultural benefits. The government and conservation non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are currently implementing various measures to protect the state’s wildlife and habitats, and it is crucial to sustain these efforts in the future. To safeguard the ecological richness of Arunachal Pradesh, it is imperative to focus on tiger conservation and the establishment of wildlife sanctuaries and reserves. These protected areas serve as safe havens for endangered species and help maintain natural habitats such as forests, grasslands, wetlands, and freshwater resources, which are essential for their survival. Additionally, wildlife sanctuaries also play a crucial role in preserving the indigenous culture and traditions of tribal communities that coexist with wildlife in the region.


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